2K6ME 701: METROLOGY AND INSTRUMENTATION

Module I (13 hours)
Applications of measuring instruments-functional elements of an instrument-instrument as transducer-generalised measuring instrument-generalised mathematical model of measuring systems-zero order, first order and second order instruments-classification of instruments – input/output configurations – methods of correction for spurious inputs-inherent insensitivity – high-gain feed-back – signal – filtering and opposing inputs – static calibration and determination of bias and random error of an instrument- assumption of Gaussian distribution for experimental data-chi-square goodness-of-fit test-method of least squares for curve fitting – static characteristics-accuracy loading effect-backlash-friction-hysteresis-threshold-dead space- resolution-static sensitivity and linearity-problems on friction-loading effectsensitivity and calibration
Module II (13 hours)
Uncertainty in “computed quantities” from measured values – estimation of permissible uncertainties of instruments for specific purposes – potentiometer transducer as a zero order instrument – analysis of its loading error – mercury-in-glass thermometer as a first order instrument – step, ramp and frequency response of first order instruments – problems – seismic instrument as a second order instrument – step, terminated ramp, ramp and frequency response of second order instruments – slip gages – assembling the blocks – temperature problems – LVDT – comparators: principle of working of mechanical, electrical, pneumatic comparators – measurement of strain: strain gauge classification – unbonded and bonded strain gauges – gage factor – strain gauge rosettes – selection and installation of bonded gauges – ballast, DC bridges and constant current circuits – temperature compensation – calibration
Module III (13 hours)
Measurement of force: multiple lever system for weighing – strain gauge load cells – temperature sensitivity-ballistic weighing-hydraulic & pneumatic load cells-measurement of torque: water brake Heenan & Froude hydraulic dynamometer – general purpose electric dynamometer – measurement of temperature: pressure thermometers-RTDs-compensation for lead resistance-thermistors – thermocouples – series in parallel connected thermocouples – materials used and there ranges – pyrometry-infrared pyrometry – air pollution measurement: gas chromatography – Orsat’s apparatus – nuclear instrumentation: Gieger Muller counter – ionisation chamber – scintillation counters
Module IV (13 hours)
Acoustical measurements: characterisation of sound (noise) – basic acoustical parameters – sound pressure – sound pressure level, power, intensity and power level – combination of
sound pressure levels – attenuation with distance – psychoacoustic relationships – microphones – sound level meter – principles of automatic control: open and closed loop systems servo mechanism – process control and regulators – mathematical modelling of mechanical and electrical systems – transfer function of simple systems – time domain analysis of control system: steady state response – steady state error – error coefficients – stability of control systems: concept of stability – method of determining stability of linear control systems – Routh Hurwitz criterion

Text Books and References
1. Beckwith T.G., Marangoni R.D. & Lienhard J.H., “Mechanical Measurements”
2. Doebelin E.O., “Measurement Systems”, McGraw Hill Publishing Company
3. Holman J.P., “Experimental Methods for Engineers”, McGraw Hill Inc.
4. Kuo, “Automatic Control Systems”, Asian Student Edition, Prentice Hall of India